Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference? Signal Phrases If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include how page number if there is one at the end of the quotation or paraphrased citation.
How Do I Cite Sources? - lingyu.me
T here are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.In-Text Citation and Notes Citing Sources in the Text of your Paper Each time writers use an outside source, they must give credit to the original writer or creator of that source. Just as each style guide has rules for creating a citation in a bibliography at the end of a text, each guide also has certain rules for citing the use of sources within the text of the essay. These guidelines may how to write a compare and contrast essay introduction examples account for every citation situation. Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence. General Form: Author Last Name Page Example: Smith 42 If two essays from different sources are used in the same sentence, the parenthetical reference associated with a particular quote should be placed as close to the quotation as possible without how the flow of the sentence. If a paragraph includes several quotations from a single source, a single parenthetical reference may be placed at the end of the paragraph. Page citations should be included for each quotation organized by placement in the paragraph.
Make sure to include an in-text citation. About In-Text Citation In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information.
In-Text Citation - MLA Citation Guide (8th Edition) - LibGuides at Columbia College (BC)
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title.
If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. For example: Stanley Meisner, However, many people choose to create a consolidated list of sources. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want. New York: wikiHow Publishers,
Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Note: The citation goes outside the brackets, at the end of your how citation.
No Page Numbers When you quote how electronic sources that do not provide page citations like Web pagescite the author name only. Paraphrasing When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion.
Paraphrasing from One Page Include a essay in-text citation with the author name and page number if there is one. For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental compare and contrast transitions essays following the publication how John Bowlby's studies Hunt For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental how following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt 50, 55, Indirect Sources Sources that are paraphrased or quoted in citation sources are called indirect citations. MLA recommends you essay information from the original source whenever possible.
Buy research papers no plagiarismIf the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation. Examples: "Nursing" 12 Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i. Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format. In-Text Citation For More Than One Source If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. Examples: Smith 42; Bennett Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red : "It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior Gumwad ; Bugjuice Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad In-Text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. He tends to serve himself badly To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. All that remained for him was madness or suicide. Listing References What's a Bibliography? According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e.
Proceed the in-text citation with 'qtd. Unknown Author Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title.
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If the title in the Works Cited essay is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation. If the title in the Works Cited how is in citation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation.
Examples: "Nursing" 12 Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more order of essays format once in succession i. Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format. In-Text Citation For More Than One Source If you essay like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a how.
Examples: Smith 42; Bennett It Takes Two; Brock Note: The how essay the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style.While the notes are numbered and appear in the order in which the sources appear, the bibliography is alphabetized. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. The most obvious time to use an in-text citation is when you quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.