Compare And Contrast Sumerian And Egyptian Civilizations Essay

Coursework 26.10.2019
Compare and contrast sumerian and egyptian civilizations essay

Mesopotamian civilizations such as the Sumerians, the Akkadian kingdom, the Assyrian empire and the Babylonian city-state, were all too dependent on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. I chose this particular question because during my junior year I took and AP World History egyptian in which we of compare studied the worlds sumerian.

The Egyptian writing was called hieroglyphic and the Sumerian writing was called cuneiform. Hieroglyphic was a more complex writing then the cuneiform writing. Cuneiform was just pictures that represented words. Egyptians wrote on papyrus, like the paper we use today. Unlike the Egyptians the Sumer civilization wrote on clay tablets. The water helps the people to survive. People have different roles. What were the underlying principles of Hammurabi 's code of laws and what does the law code tell us about the kind of society that existed in Mesopotamia at the time? E rapidly expanded their land and changed at a quicker pace than other regions. Though at this point, Mesopotamia and Egypt seem very different, they still have many similarities. Egypt and Mesopotamia both created their own form of writing. Egyptian civilization used hieroglyphics, which were sacred carvings. It shows us religious beliefs that today seem very pessimistic, with childish gods that can't be counted on to show any constancy or concern about human needs, and no human hope for a desirable afterlife if Enkidu and Gilgamesh could not hope for anything, how could ordinary humans? You will note here a sub-story line very similar to that of Noah and the Flood; many scholars believe the Biblical story was based on sources from which the Gilgamesh saga came also. Finally you may note the rather limited roles played by women. We've now gone through the highlights of earliest civilization as started in the southern Mesopotamian area of Sumer, and evolved there and eventually throughout the whole area. Let us now turn to the 2nd great starter civilization to emerge, noticing both the ways in which it was similar and different. Egyptian Civilization c. Most students find it useful to get clear how each both compare and contrast to Mesopotamia, so we'll be sure to step back regularly and talk about both similarities and differences. Introduction Egyptians seem first to have moved beyond high Neolithic farming settlements just a few hundred years after the Mesopotamians first did the same thing. Most scholars guess that word of the benefits of greater complexity probably was brought to the Nile by travelling traders. Various Egyptians then set out, independently, to try to figure out for themselves how to accomplish the advanced irrigation, writing, etc about which they were hearing. But Sumerian city-states soon flourished producing writing, etc while Egypt really didn't hit its full-civilization stride until the Old Kingdom era, which your text puts as beginning in BCE all these dates are approximate. Again, the city-state form was one that developed very, very quickly. But once Egypt got going, it soon built its own distinctive brand of very successful complex civilization. Geographic Context: Egypt as the "Gift of the Nile" Map of Egypt and Nubia Sudan Areas Egypt is often called the "gift of the Nile" with the term "gift" emphasizing both how lucky the Egyptians were in the behavior and location of their particular river, and how much their civilization was shaped by the Nile's especially fortunate characteristics. The Nile is, compared rivers, a relatively kind and cooperative river. Up to the first cataract note it, slightly washed by red, in the above map the Nile is navigable can be travelled on. The Nile flows north from the relatively higher lands of Upper Egypt to those of Lower Egypt, with the current helping those rowing south. The winds almost always blow south, allowing use of sails when travelling against the current. Thus travel on the Nile is relatively easy until the dividing line of the first cataract which is also usually the dividing line between Egypt and Nubia, also known as the Sudan. Troops and taxes could both easily be moved the full extent of the river, making central control much easier even over a long, thin area The Nile: Like the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians had to depend on river irrigation to let them produce sufficent crop surpluses to support their complex civilization. The Nile travelled through desert lands in which almost no rain fell. Thus without irrigation farming would be impossible, and without farming, there would have been no basis for civilized life. But compared to Mesopotamia's rivers, the timing and nature of Nile floods was very kindly. They came regularly every September, lasting through November or so. Mostly "Inundation," as it was known, was relatively gentle, with the river rising steadily to approximately the same level of flood. Overall the flood waters both moistened and fertilized the river's bordering fields naturally - and then went away naturally, requiring much less engineering than the irrigating and drainage canals of Mesopotamia, which often had to work against gravity. Of course sometimes the Nile floods were too much or too little, washing away holding basins or not leaving enough water, but generally the Nile floods were dependable and "just right. So where Mesopotamians had to fight their rivers to control dangerous flooding, the Egyptians built their farming-based civilization to fit the generosity of their river. Surrounding location: Finally, Egypt was lucky in the Nile's overall location within a whole ring of protective barriers against outside invasion. In an age when invaders still came from the land not the sea, Egypt was sheltered by both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas to the north and east. The immense Sahara Desert to the west was also a formidable barrier. There were thus really only two possible corridors for serious invasion, one more serious than the other. Intruders might come up the Nile from Nubia, but in most circumstances this was unlikely. Altogether six cataracts made the southern Nile more a barrier than a highway for invaders, plus the lush forest lands to the south tended to make it less likely that their inhabitants would have to submit to the kind of controlling organization needed to produce the large, disciplined populations needed to form invading armies. This left only the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt's northeast as a likely corridor of invasion. True, the Sinai is a desert, but it is a small one which disciplined armies could cross, and it is near to settled, organized lands from which such forces might come Mesopotamia and neighboring areas. Summed up: Egyptians were overall distinctly luckier in their river valley than were Mesopotamians. Most of the time nature smiled on them with a river whose floods sustained rather than threatened them, and which served as a highway connecting a stable, central form of government. At the same time that they were connected internally, they were also mostly protected externally, by barriers that almost completely stopped nomad invasion, and greatly limited the possibility of organized armies intruding. Egyptian Historic Eras: A few words on them Chapter 2 covers the story of developing Egyptian civilization through what is known as the Middle Kingdom era, that is, from about to about the s BCE. Your text chooses to look at the later era New Kingdom developments in Chapter 3, so we will do the same looking at them in the Chapter 3 Essay. This makes sense, since Chapter 2 is basically about the development of the full pattern of earliest civilization, and by the Middle Kingdom all crucial aspects of Egyptian rule and society were quite well established. A note on terms: Old, Middle, and New Kingdom are traditional, long-established period names that historians just keep on using. They basically apply to the three great, long periods of Egyptian stability and prosperity, which were separated by two much shorter periods of breakdown and between the Middle and New Kingdoms invasion. What original powers and roles emerged why, and evolved how and why? In theory, and often pretty much in fact, the Pharaoh was the all-powerful ruler of Egypt. Where Sumer was divided among many independent city-states, and centralized rule represented a challenge even to even the most successful later Mesopotamian imperial conquerors, almost from the beginning civilized Egypt was unified by tradition, in about BCE by Menes - or Narmer under the authority of god-king Pharaohs. Basically geography made it fairly easy for a line of men to call themselves rulers of all Egypt, where in Sumer they would have had to settle for "just" being kings of one of a number of city-states. Probably the greatness of this achievement, plus the fact that they didn't face kingly competitors, let the early rulers actually call themselves gods, not just chief godly servants. The basic belief said that, one the moment of becoming Pharaoh, a man became a living god, the son of the sun god originally Re representing Egyptians to the gods, and keeping Egypt in tune with the forces of nature and those gods. The Pharaoh did this by maintaining Ma'at Truth; universal order. In good part this was thanks to Egypt's geography of rapid river travel communication and sheltering natural barriers against intrusion. Again in theory, the Pharaohs owned all the land, and in fact, thanks to relatively quick travel time on the Nile, they could appoint mid-level representatives to administer temples and fields, and require all major elites' regular attendence at the royal court, thus keeping dominance over them. In some senses early Egypt was like one very long, thin, large city-state, with one ruler who personally dominated all the top elite priests and warriors. In good part because Egypt lacked very few natural resources, so traded mostly for desired as opposed to absolutely needed goods, trade and traders were never as important in Egypt as they became in Mesopotamia. It was in the formative Old Kingdom period of greatest Pharaoh domination that Egypt built what remains its best known form of monumental architecture, the pyramids. Go see a photograph the first really monumental pyramid, the famous Step Pyramid of Zoser. In it, the basic stepped foundation of the pyramid shape is still clearly visible. Then go look at of two of the most famous pyramids of all, which are part of the Great Pyramids at Giza , note the Sphynx is also visible. Note the basic shape stays the same, but is refined not only by becoming bigger, but also with smoother sides. The basic shape is the same as that of the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, but not its function. Mesopotamia's ziggurats were topped by busy temples serving the living interests of the whole city ie, keeping the gods from being any more destructive than was inevitable ; inside they usually stored surpluses, could be places of refuge, and housed temple priests and administrative offices. In contrast, Egypt's pyramids were tombs to keep safe the bodies of dead pharaohs, in order that their spirits, in the first crucial years after their death, would have a safe place to return, as they negotiated the journey to the afterlife, where they were expected to continue to look out for Egypt's interests. Like the ziggurats, the pyramids show that the ruling elites of their eras controlled massive resources labor and goods. As your book explains, the technology of the pyramids was really quite simple; what is most impressive is the massive amount of human labor that went to built what were in fact immense tombs for a few dead kings. They were many scholars believe literally jumping off points for the dead ruler's soul, plus safe repositories for his body during period of its journey through the afterlife. Rulers and their priests justified these great construction jobs with the theory that the dead pharaohs could continue to help living Egyptians only if they safely travelled through the underworld to the realms of afterlife. During this period Egyptians seem to have believed that an afterlife was possible for only the pharaohs plus perhaps a few favored companions also buried in their or neighboring smaller pyramids The work was done during Innundation, when no work in the fields was possible, and most peasants were probably delighted to have a job that earned them food and maybe a little pay. During this time the stones needed for construction could be floated over flood waters to get relatively close to the pyramids' construction grounds But such construction was still only possible during the few centuries c. Probably the custom also ended because the pyramids were so visible, and tomb robbers kept breaking into them, stealing the goods left to accompany the royal corpses in the afterlife, and often trampling even those corpses. For whatever combination of reasons, later pharaohs therefore started instead building hidden tombs, in the usually forlorn hope of their own bodies avoiding similar fates. Middle Kingdom Changes: limited but important. They had different thoughts on the creation of their gods, the universe and of man. For example, both Mesopotamia and Egypt were ruled by kings, but in Egypt, their kings were called pharaohs and they had significantly more power than the Mesopotamian kings of the city-states. Both are famous in their history and favored by many. Each of these civilizations were built from the ground up, and they developed their own culture, practices, religions, and architectures.

One on my favorite things that we studied in that egyptian was egyptian Empires. Herman, my AP teacher during that time, went through the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Empires rather too quickly for my tastes.

Compare and contrast sumerian and egyptian civilizations essay

All though they both supported essay a patriarchal leader or king, Egypt had a strong, centralized government, whereas Mesopotamia was decentralized, and built based on small contrasts operating independently.

In both societies, the patriarchal leaders were influenced by religion tremendously.

Compare and contrast sumerian and egyptian civilizations essay

Both have sumerians significant similarities and differences. I would like to compare some important points in four common categories. I will compare and sumerian the geography and its impact, the political structure of each society, the importance of their existing class structures and finally the role of women in these dynamic civilizations.

  • Essay anchor chart with thesis and claim outline
  • Global warming taking a stand essay
  • Saban second civil war essay
  • Cyber security and information assurance essay
  • Essay writing restate thesis and points

Mesopotamia and Egypt were both in and basins of compare rivers. Not only this is a double-negative that you do not need. Through comparing similarities and differences it is easier to analyze why essays developed and occurred the way they did.

The Gilgamesh story thus tells us a number of things about Mesopotamian civilization. It tells us that they were not only literate, but eventually used writing to record human emotions in a way that reaches across four millennia to touch those of us living today. It tells us that their greatest heros were heros for very manly things; human achievements that were traditionally male are at least most valued in the Gilgamesh story. It shows us religious beliefs that today seem very pessimistic, with childish gods that can't be counted on to show any constancy or concern about human needs, and no human hope for a desirable afterlife if Enkidu and Gilgamesh could not hope for anything, how could ordinary humans? You will note here a sub-story line very similar to that of Noah and the Flood; many scholars believe the Biblical story was based on sources from which the Gilgamesh saga came also. Finally you may note the rather limited roles played by women. We've now gone through the highlights of earliest civilization as started in the southern Mesopotamian area of Sumer, and evolved there and eventually throughout the whole area. Let us now turn to the 2nd great starter civilization to emerge, noticing both the ways in which it was similar and different. Egyptian Civilization c. Most students find it useful to get clear how each both compare and contrast to Mesopotamia, so we'll be sure to step back regularly and talk about both similarities and differences. Introduction Egyptians seem first to have moved beyond high Neolithic farming settlements just a few hundred years after the Mesopotamians first did the same thing. Most scholars guess that word of the benefits of greater complexity probably was brought to the Nile by travelling traders. Various Egyptians then set out, independently, to try to figure out for themselves how to accomplish the advanced irrigation, writing, etc about which they were hearing. But Sumerian city-states soon flourished producing writing, etc while Egypt really didn't hit its full-civilization stride until the Old Kingdom era, which your text puts as beginning in BCE all these dates are approximate. Again, the city-state form was one that developed very, very quickly. But once Egypt got going, it soon built its own distinctive brand of very successful complex civilization. Geographic Context: Egypt as the "Gift of the Nile" Map of Egypt and Nubia Sudan Areas Egypt is often called the "gift of the Nile" with the term "gift" emphasizing both how lucky the Egyptians were in the behavior and location of their particular river, and how much their civilization was shaped by the Nile's especially fortunate characteristics. The Nile is, compared rivers, a relatively kind and cooperative river. Up to the first cataract note it, slightly washed by red, in the above map the Nile is navigable can be travelled on. The Nile flows north from the relatively higher lands of Upper Egypt to those of Lower Egypt, with the current helping those rowing south. The winds almost always blow south, allowing use of sails when travelling against the current. Thus travel on the Nile is relatively easy until the dividing line of the first cataract which is also usually the dividing line between Egypt and Nubia, also known as the Sudan. Troops and taxes could both easily be moved the full extent of the river, making central control much easier even over a long, thin area The Nile: Like the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians had to depend on river irrigation to let them produce sufficent crop surpluses to support their complex civilization. The Nile travelled through desert lands in which almost no rain fell. Thus without irrigation farming would be impossible, and without farming, there would have been no basis for civilized life. But compared to Mesopotamia's rivers, the timing and nature of Nile floods was very kindly. They came regularly every September, lasting through November or so. Mostly "Inundation," as it was known, was relatively gentle, with the river rising steadily to approximately the same level of flood. Overall the flood waters both moistened and fertilized the river's bordering fields naturally - and then went away naturally, requiring much less engineering than the irrigating and drainage canals of Mesopotamia, which often had to work against gravity. Of course sometimes the Nile floods were too much or too little, washing away holding basins or not leaving enough water, but generally the Nile floods were dependable and "just right. So where Mesopotamians had to fight their rivers to control dangerous flooding, the Egyptians built their farming-based civilization to fit the generosity of their river. Surrounding location: Finally, Egypt was lucky in the Nile's overall location within a whole ring of protective barriers against outside invasion. In an age when invaders still came from the land not the sea, Egypt was sheltered by both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas to the north and east. The immense Sahara Desert to the west was also a formidable barrier. There were thus really only two possible corridors for serious invasion, one more serious than the other. Intruders might come up the Nile from Nubia, but in most circumstances this was unlikely. Altogether six cataracts made the southern Nile more a barrier than a highway for invaders, plus the lush forest lands to the south tended to make it less likely that their inhabitants would have to submit to the kind of controlling organization needed to produce the large, disciplined populations needed to form invading armies. This left only the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt's northeast as a likely corridor of invasion. True, the Sinai is a desert, but it is a small one which disciplined armies could cross, and it is near to settled, organized lands from which such forces might come Mesopotamia and neighboring areas. Summed up: Egyptians were overall distinctly luckier in their river valley than were Mesopotamians. Most of the time nature smiled on them with a river whose floods sustained rather than threatened them, and which served as a highway connecting a stable, central form of government. At the same time that they were connected internally, they were also mostly protected externally, by barriers that almost completely stopped nomad invasion, and greatly limited the possibility of organized armies intruding. Egyptian Historic Eras: A few words on them Chapter 2 covers the story of developing Egyptian civilization through what is known as the Middle Kingdom era, that is, from about to about the s BCE. Your text chooses to look at the later era New Kingdom developments in Chapter 3, so we will do the same looking at them in the Chapter 3 Essay. This makes sense, since Chapter 2 is basically about the development of the full pattern of earliest civilization, and by the Middle Kingdom all crucial aspects of Egyptian rule and society were quite well established. A note on terms: Old, Middle, and New Kingdom are traditional, long-established period names that historians just keep on using. They basically apply to the three great, long periods of Egyptian stability and prosperity, which were separated by two much shorter periods of breakdown and between the Middle and New Kingdoms invasion. What original powers and roles emerged why, and evolved how and why? In theory, and often pretty much in fact, the Pharaoh was the all-powerful ruler of Egypt. Where Sumer was divided among many independent city-states, and centralized rule represented a challenge even to even the most successful later Mesopotamian imperial conquerors, almost from the beginning civilized Egypt was unified by tradition, in about BCE by Menes - or Narmer under the authority of god-king Pharaohs. Basically geography made it fairly easy for a line of men to call themselves rulers of all Egypt, where in Sumer they would have had to settle for "just" being kings of one of a number of city-states. Probably the greatness of this achievement, plus the fact that they didn't face kingly competitors, let the early rulers actually call themselves gods, not just chief godly servants. The basic belief said that, one the moment of becoming Pharaoh, a man became a living god, the son of the sun god originally Re representing Egyptians to the gods, and keeping Egypt in tune with the forces of nature and those gods. The Pharaoh did this by maintaining Ma'at Truth; universal order. In good part this was thanks to Egypt's geography of rapid river travel communication and sheltering natural barriers against intrusion. Again in theory, the Pharaohs owned all the land, and in fact, thanks to relatively quick travel time on the Nile, they could appoint mid-level representatives to administer temples and fields, and require all major elites' regular attendence at the royal court, thus keeping dominance over them. In some senses early Egypt was like one very long, thin, large city-state, with one ruler who personally dominated all the top elite priests and warriors. In good part because Egypt lacked very few natural resources, so traded mostly for desired as opposed to absolutely needed goods, trade and traders were never as important in Egypt as they became in Mesopotamia. It was in the formative Old Kingdom period of greatest Pharaoh domination that Egypt built what remains its best known form of monumental architecture, the pyramids. Go see a photograph the first really monumental pyramid, the famous Step Pyramid of Zoser. In it, the basic stepped foundation of the pyramid shape is still clearly visible. Then go look at of two of the most famous pyramids of all, which are part of the Great Pyramids at Giza , note the Sphynx is also visible. Note the basic shape stays the same, but is refined not only by becoming bigger, but also with smoother sides. The basic shape is the same as that of the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, but not its function. Mesopotamia's ziggurats were topped by busy temples serving the living interests of the whole city ie, keeping the gods from being any more destructive than was inevitable ; inside they usually stored surpluses, could be places of refuge, and housed temple priests and administrative offices. In contrast, Egypt's pyramids were tombs to keep safe the bodies of dead pharaohs, in order that their spirits, in the first crucial years after their death, would have a safe place to return, as they negotiated the journey to the afterlife, where they were expected to continue to look out for Egypt's interests. Like the ziggurats, the pyramids show that the ruling elites of their eras controlled massive resources labor and goods. As your book explains, the technology of the pyramids was really quite simple; what is most impressive is the massive amount of human labor that went to built what were in fact immense tombs for a few dead kings. They were many scholars believe literally jumping off points for the dead ruler's soul, plus safe repositories for his body during period of its journey through the afterlife. Rulers and their priests justified these great construction jobs with the theory that the dead pharaohs could continue to help living Egyptians only if they safely travelled through the underworld to the realms of afterlife. During this period Egyptians seem to have believed that an afterlife was possible for only the pharaohs plus perhaps a few favored companions also buried in their or neighboring smaller pyramids The work was done during Innundation, when no work in the fields was possible, and most peasants were probably delighted to have a job that earned them food and maybe a little pay. During this time the stones needed for construction could be floated over flood waters to get relatively close to the pyramids' construction grounds But such construction was still only possible during the few centuries c. Probably the custom also ended because the pyramids were so visible, and tomb robbers kept breaking into them, stealing the goods left to accompany the royal corpses in the afterlife, and often trampling even those corpses. For whatever combination of reasons, later pharaohs therefore started instead building hidden tombs, in the usually forlorn hope of their own bodies avoiding similar fates. Middle Kingdom Changes: limited but important. The immense pharaoh's government power that built the pyramids continued, in an only somewhat more limited form, for well more than another thousand years of Egyptian greatness. Probably this power continued in part because so many more people shared in its exercise and benefits. By the end of the Old Kingdom era, subordinate elites were growing more powerful, with far-flung regional landholdings and status that later O. By the time the land fragmented, the elites had already established regional courts in which they continued the essence of Egyptian civilization despite the fall of the royal center. Priests and temples also survived by building temples that served more and more Egyptians, and by re-interpreting ideas of the afterlife to say that it might be possible for all Egyptians - if they managed to carry out lesser versions of the early royal death rituals more on this later. About one hundred and fifty years after Old Kingdom Egyptian centralized rule fragmented, a new unifying dynasty put all of Egypt back together, restoring the whole structure of god-king central rule. But now the priests and temples served all Egyptians in, of course, lesser and greater ways , and elite families served at court with at least some regional stability and roots of their own behind them. Yet this was not just a time in which the old warrior and priestly elites shared some more of the pharaoh's power. It was also a time of greater social mobility, in which the best ordinary man might rise to become a great scribe, priest, warrior, or member of the royal bureaucracy, and in which merchants and lesser regional elites lived better and had something of a middle status. Egyptian Society The result for Middle Kingdom Egypt was a vibrant society of many elites, some active at the royal court and others of importance in their own region. These elites came from land owning families however much the land was theoretically the pharaoh's, but the M. Most Egyptians were of course not elites, but rather ordinary farmers working their own land and landless peasants, with rights to live on elite-controlled land, but obligations to the land's masters. While slavery existed, most were free. Women, while not fully equal, overall remained better off in Egypt than in evolving Mesopotamia, where their rights were already significantly limited by the time of Hammurabi, and would become much more limited later. As with almost all civilizations, Egypt's public sphere of royal rule, the battlefield, long-distance trade belonged almost completely to men - and it was in those places that new power developed, and new ideas brewed. But especially as compared to other early civilizations, Egyptian women did very well, losing relatively few absolute legal rights, and maintaining that position throughout the period while most early civilizations saw women's rights increasingly limited as time went on. Egyptian women kept most of their legal rights even in marriage: they could craft special marriage contracts guaranteeing almost any special rights as vs. Hammurabi's Code's "one size fits all" limitations on married women. Generally married, like single, women could not only own but actively control property, as well as leaving to heirs of their own choice. There were also relatively more paid occupations still open to them in the public sphere, including as priestesses and even occasionally as scribes. Royal women definitely had real status within the royal family; a number were important when young boys inherited the throne, and about five actually ruled, one as a female pharaoh Hatshepsut. Women of all levels continued to appear in public, rather than being increasingly expected - if elite - to stay within the private sphere of their own men's household. Scholars have a number of guesses about why Egyptian women lost less power, status and autonomy. Some suggest that the greater power of the pharaoh meant less absolute elite family control of property and status, and thus less motive to control the women of their families. Others emphasize Old and Middle Kingdom Egypt's relative lack of warfare and standing armies; military dominance usually sparks increased emphasis on things male. Egyptian Knowledge, Beliefs and Culture Writing: Like the Sumerians, the Egyptians invented their own system of writing called hieroglyphics. They, too, started with pictures which became more and more standardized as symbols, and then added other symbols for sounds and concepts. It is quite likely that they were did so having heard that the Sumerians had already done something of the sort, but since all of their symbols are different, it is fairly clear that they at most borrowed the idea that it was possible, rather than the system of writing itself. The priests of the era taught that this writing was literally a gift of the gods, intended to allow communication with them. As with Sumer, almost certainly priests were the first users of writing, but scribes soon also served rulers, merchants, and eventually increasing although always small numbers of literate Egyptians. Egyptians used ink on papyrus for their permanent records, which certainly were therefore lighter and more easily stored than Mesopotamia's clay tablets of course, they were also more easily destroyed. In general, hieroglyphic writing worked almost exactly the same way in Egyptian civilization as did cuneiform in Mesopotamia. Some scholars point out that we have less epic literature from Egypt than was produced in Mesopotamia with Gilgamesh being an outstanding example , but there is no real agreement on what this means. Perhaps literature was lost, perhaps life in a kinder land meant more enjoyment of the here-and-now and less poetry about human misery. The are the course instructor's name Sara Tucker created by an online computer program that assigned an hieroglyph symbol to each letter of our modern alphabet. While the website that generated this image no longer exists, another one has appeared. Knowledge: Like Mesopotamians, Egyptians also developed a numbering system, and reliable calendar, the basics of engineering and metal-smithing, etc. Beliefs: Like Mesopotamians, Egyptians believed in many gods. Unlike Mesopotamians, Egyptians seem to have worshipped fairly kindly gods, and - by the Middle Kingdom - believed in the possibility of a good afterlife. Rebirth and life after death is a central part of the Osiris story, as is the pattern of Egyptian god-kingship. Your book tells you that, according to ancient Egyptian belief, Osiris was a god who once ruled Egypt. He was killed by his jealous brother Seth or Set , who eventually cut up his body and scattered the pieces across the land. These pieces were each discovered and brought together by Osiris's loving sister and wife Isis. The pieces were mummified, and then Isis turned into a kite-bird, and with her wings fanned life back into Osiris. Later Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, got vengence on Seth. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt grew up in river valleys. These civilizations depended on these rivers to have productive agriculture in arid areas. However, these rivers were different. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers also rose annually, but were unpredictable and …show more content… Each city state was ruled by a King, who controlled the walled city and its surrounding rural area. There was often warfare among these city states, which caused people to flee to the cities for protection. The conflicts led to the fall of Sumerian cities, and brought an end to its phase of the civilization. Egyptians wrote on papyrus, like the paper we use today. Unlike the Egyptians the Sumer civilization wrote on clay tablets. Their writings were very different from each other. Sumer civilization invented the wheel. Used for transportation and helping them to get places faster. Also, it was used to move heavy things in an easier way. Egypt civilization invented the sailboat. Used for transportation and trading on the Nile River.

For sumerian, in comparing Egypt and Mesopotamia it civilization be easier to achieve civilization of contrast aspects of their culture, the way other cultures impacted them, and their essay on the future. Not only and the compares of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt seemingly perfect to compare, but the two civilizations also existed and the same time and one another; meaning that the overall impact of their respective rivers on their best essay writing writing can truly be and.

The birth of Mesopotamian Civilization began argument contrast college writing prompt c.

Egypt and Sumer Civilizations Compare and Contrast free essay sample - New York Essays

They had little of vocabulary, stone tools, believed in god, and had and. What role did water acquisition and management play in the political development of Mesopotamia.

The water helps the people to survive. People have different compares. What were and underlying principles of Hammurabi 's code of laws and what does the law code tell us about the kind of civilization essay outline 5 pages existed in Mesopotamia at the time. E rapidly expanded their civilization and changed at a quicker pace than other regions.

Essays on writing by writers

The first area of life this affected seems to have been marriage and the family, where a woman's chastity was seen as very important to the men of her family, who didn't want her free to consort with any outside men. Egyptian Historic Eras: A few words on them Chapter 2 covers the story of developing Egyptian civilization through what is known as the Middle Kingdom era, that is, from about to about the s BCE. Egyptian and Indus are believed to have been very near to, but not yet fully crystallized as civilizations when very general knowledge of the fact of Sumerian developments pushed them into developing their own independent version of civilized complexities. The immense Sahara Desert to the west was also a formidable barrier.

They all had better agriculture, technology, development of state power and construction of cities.