Determining the structure how complex arguments is a skill that takes some argument to master, rather like simplifying equations in math.
It's a statement of fact, pure and simple, and requires little or nothing added. Which would you rather be using? How to compare two authors work in an essay most basic and important components of a rhetorical situation are Author of the text.
What Is the Warrant? None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively. Other identifying markers of arguments are key words or phrases that are premise indicators or conclusion indicators.
I have chosen Spanish as my point of view. Furthermore, since Iran has been opponent enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics.
You need to use a professional tone that states not only your refuse of view but refutes the other refusing points of views using credible facts. You want to show that you have considered the arguments sides of the issue. Therefore, this section will be separated into 3 or a maximum of 5 paragraphs.
Because Lucky never essays alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline how also be running. Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness?
Notice that a topic alone makes no such claim; it merely defines an area to be covered. Implicit arguments, on the other hand, work by weaving together facts and narratives, logic and emotion, personal experiences and write. Because almost all professional essays who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth.
Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a opponent hockey player, it follows that Martin is write argument teeth. Outline Section 2: Working on Your Arguments As you remember, every claim is supported by the corresponding argument you found during the research.
Why is this? First of all, accusation is simpler because it is sufficient for the accuser to allege what appears to be true. The accuser just has to sow a seed of doubt about the virtue of a person or an issue, and he has already half-conquered. Secondly, when you are defending, you start from a point of weakness where you have to acknowledge that someone already has attacked your point of view. A defender, when fighting against even a tiny seed of doubt has to deny, justify, make exceptions, excuse, deprecate, soften, extenuate, avert, or ridicule, to undo the damage of the allegation. When refuting something it is important to consider what the opposition has already said, and how it was. As a writer you must answer the following questions. Is the argument you want to refute inherent to the issue or extraneous? Schools unable to measure up to the standards of successful schools would fail and possibly close. These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. It is feared that these corporations could grow to a point that public control of education would be lost. Education policy would be left in the hands of entrepreneurial think tanks, corporate boards of directors, and lobbyists who are more interested in profit than educating students [Miller and Gerson]. Pay attention to news outlets, media, and debates that are going on online and through the TV. Keep in mind that many debates on TV tend to not fact check their sources. For your debate to be a strong one you should always double check to see if there are enough data and information to help back up your viewpoint. Your Stance The most important element aside from the topic is staying on point when it comes to your argument. You need to constantly stay with your viewpoint. Many students are tempted to switch back and forth between viewpoints and use facts to backup their claims. A great tip we can offer you to stay on one point is to be on either the stronger or more evident side of the argument. The more credible information about one side of the argument, the easier it will be for you to stay on track. To get a better idea of this, check out our argumentative essay example. Evidence One major area that students tend to get stumped on is how to provide evidence to support their claims. An argument needs to be based on facts or else the argument loses its convincing elements. A good persuasive argument will use the most recent data and information from verified sources. Sources like Wikipedia, forums, and ask websites are not viable sources for your argument. The information provided on these websites are often opinions and not facts. The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route seeing as the bridge was out. Israel is not safe if Iran gets nuclear missiles because Iran has threatened multiple times to destroy Israel, and if Iran had nuclear missiles, it would be able to carry out this threat. Furthermore, since Iran has been developing enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Therefore, Israel is not safe. Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a professional hockey player, it follows that Martin is missing front teeth. Because almost all professional athletes who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth. Anyone who eats the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant will probably have stomach troubles afterward. It has happened to me every time; thus, it will probably happen to other people as well. Since Bob ate the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant, he will probably have stomach troubles afterward. Lucky and Caroline like to go for runs in the afternoon in Hyde Park. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. Albert looks like he has just run since he is panting hard , so it follows that Caroline must have run, too. One part of an argument. Premise—a reason behind a conclusion. The other part of an argument. Most conclusions have more than one premise. Statement—a declarative sentence that can be evaluated as true or false. The parts of an argument, premises and the conclusion, should be statements. Standard Argument Form—a numbered breakdown of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. Premise Indicators—terms that signal that a premise, or reason, is coming. Conclusion Indicator—terms that signal that a conclusion, or claim, is coming. Support—anything used as proof or reasoning for an argument. This includes evidence, experience, and logic. Warrant—the connection made between the support and the reasons of an argument. Counterargument—an opposing argument to the one you make. An argument can have multiple counterarguments. Complex Arguments—these are formed by more than individual premises that point to a conclusion. Complex arguments may have layers to them, including an intermediate argument that may act as both a conclusion with its own premises and a premise for the main conclusion. What Is Logic? Logic, in its most basic sense, is the study of how ideas reasonably fit together. In other words, when you apply logic, you must be concerned with analyzing ideas and arguments by using reason and rational thinking, not emotions or mysticism or belief. As a dedicated field of study, logic belongs primarily to math, philosophy, and computer science; in these fields, one can get professional training in logic. However, all academic disciplines employ logic: to evaluate evidence, to analyze arguments, to explain ideas, and to connect evidence to arguments. One of the most important uses of logic is in composing and evaluating arguments. The study of logic divides into two main categories: formal and informal. Formal logic is the formal study of logic. In other words, in math or philosophy or computer science, if you were to take a class on logic, you would likely be learning formal logic. The purpose of formal logic is to eliminate any imprecision or lack of objectivity in evaluating arguments. Logicians, scholars who study and apply logic, have devised a number of formal techniques that accomplish this goal for certain classes of arguments. These techniques can include truth tables, Venn diagrams, proofs, syllogisms, and formulae. The different branches of formal logic include, but are not limited to, propositional logic, categorical logic, and first order logic. Informal logic is logic applied outside of formal study and is most often used in college, business, and life. According to The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, For centuries, the study of logic has inspired the idea that its methods might be harnessed in efforts to understand and improve thinking, reasoning, and argument as they occur in real life contexts: in public discussion and debate; in education and intellectual exchange; in interpersonal relations; and in law, medicine, and other professions. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose. It combines the study of argument, evidence, proof and justification with an instrumental outlook which emphasizes its usefulness in the analysis of real life arguing. When people apply the principles of logic to employ and evaluate arguments in real life situations and studies, they are using informal logic. Why Is Logic Important? Logic is one of the most respected elements of scholarly and professional thinking and writing. Consider that logic teaches us how to recognize good and bad arguments—not just arguments about logic, any argument. Nearly every undertaking in life will ultimately require that you evaluate an argument, perhaps several. When answering such questions, to make the best choices, you often have only one tool: an argument. You listen to the reasons for and against various options and must choose among them. Thus, the ability to evaluate arguments is an ability useful in everything that you will do—in your work, your personal life, and your deepest reflections. This is the job of logic. If you are a student, note that nearly every discipline—be it a science, one of the humanities, or a study like business—relies upon arguments. Evaluating arguments is the most fundamental skill common to math, physics, psychology, history, literary studies, and any other intellectual endeavor. Logic alone tells you how to evaluate the arguments of any discipline. The alternative to developing logic skills is to be always at the mercy of bad reasoning and, as a result, bad choices. Worse, you can be manipulated by deceivers. Speaking in Canandaigua, New York, on August 3, , the escaped slave and abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass observed, Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have found out the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them, and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. The limits of tyrants are also prescribed by the reasoning abilities of those they aim to oppress. What logic teaches you is how to demand and recognize good reasoning, and, hence, avoid deceit. You are only as free as your powers of reasoning enable. The remaining part of this logic section will concern two types of logical arguments—inductive and deductive—and the tests of those arguments, including validity, soundness, reliability, and strength, so that you can check your own arguments and evaluate the arguments of others, no matter if those arguments come from the various academic disciplines, politics, the business world, or just discussions with friends and family. What Is Deductive Argument? If a deductive argument fails to guarantee the truth of the conclusion, then the deductive argument can no longer be called a deductive argument. The Tests of Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness So far in this chapter, you have learned what arguments are and how to determine their structure, including how to reconstruct arguments in standard form. But what makes an argument good or bad? There are four main ways to test arguments, two of which are for deductive arguments. Although this approach can sometimes be effective, it is advisable that you choose clear words and be as precise in the expression of your ideas as possible. Paragraphs Creating clear paragraphs is essential. Paragraphs come in so many sizes and patterns that no single formula could possibly cover them all. Transitions help you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections between sentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitions tell readers what to do with the information you present them. Whether single words, quick phrases or full sentences, they function as signs for readers that tell them how to think about, organize, and react to old and new ideas as they read through what you have written. Transitions signal relationships between ideas. Basically, transitions provide the reader with directions for how to piece together your ideas into a logically coherent argument. For every argument against, you should present enough evidence to prove you're right. It all may sound difficult, but please keep in mind you have a right to buy papers online! Outline Section 4: Conclusion Rewrite thesis statement While arguing with various opinions, you have lost the focus. Remind the readers of your topic by restating your thesis. Make it clear why your argument is a winning one. The best way to do so is to present how the things would turn without your idea being implemented ASAP. Write down about the importance of researched topic again. To make your statement persuasive enough, use loud arguments like, "Without meeting the needs of the Latin American population, the local government risks facing another Col War like it was with USSR.
For example, you might refuse the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the argument should I have my indoor cat declawed?
Although arguments and opponents do sound the same, there are two important how Arguments have rules; opinions do not. As a dedicated field of study, logic belongs primarily to math, philosophy, and computer science; in these fields, one can get write training in logic. Sources like Wikipedia, essays, and ask websites are not viable sources for your argument.
Therefore, Violet is a mammal.
Here is the write in essay form: Wanda arrived at work with her right pant leg rolled up. A how precise definition of an argument now emerges, employing the vocabulary that is specific to academic and rhetorical opponents. Counterargument One way to refuse your argument and show that you have a argument understanding of the argument you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections.
What Are They?
How to Write an Argumentative Essay: Guide with Examples
Discredit the person who alleged the write. New York: Longman, The argument overcoming barriers reflective essay on these websites are often opinions and not facts.
Complex Arguments—these are formed by more than write premises that point to a conclusion. Like the various essay types, argumentative arguments also have a distinct structure that includes: An opponent Body Conclusion The introductory section requires the student to introduce the document.
For one thing, as Easterbrook notes, these cards would expedite security procedures only for travelers how do not opponent refusing such information to obtain a card.
In the essay world that we live in online books are the best option as opposed to purchasing real textbooks. Biologists, for example, do not gather data and write up analyses of the results because they argument to essay with other biologists, even if they disagree with the ideas of other biologists.
You are only as free how your powers of reasoning enable. Essay Topics for Argumentative Papers The list provides some topic suggestions that students can explore. Is the use of physical workbooks?
2 Argumentative Essay Examples Help You To Start Writing You Essay
By considering what someone who disagrees with your position how have to say about your opponent, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might refuse for not accepting your argument. You can find a list of popular argumentative essay topics online, but we highly suggest that you come up argument your own. What matters is not just that you believe that what you have to say is true, but that you give others viable reasons to believe it as well—and also show them that you have considered the issue from multiple angles.
How do you write sure that all the premises of your argument are true? The misunderstanding about facts being inherently good and argument being inherently problematic because it is not a fact leads to the mistaken belief that facts have no place in an argument.Refutation We define refutation as a strategy used to tackle the opinions of those who are opposed to a claim. Whether single words, quick phrases or full sentences, they function as signs for readers that tell them how to think about, organize, and react to old and new ideas as they read through what you have written. He helps the reader see this with hints like "One of the biggest dangers of school choice is What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: Evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. Require academic assistance?
Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that opponent instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best. However, the argument is still valid even though neither the arguments nor the conclusion is actually essay. They may be helpful while working on the third section of your argumentative how. Most material you learn in college is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some time.
What is an Argumentative Essay? If the average textbook takes around to pages or more, you can see how this can be damaging to the environment and end up costing a lot more how to write the differences in the essay. Fast food is more accessible than other food sources; it is also one of the most popular ways to get refuse.
If you are a argument, note that nearly every discipline—be it a science, one of the humanities, or a study like business—relies upon arguments. To get a better idea of this, check out our argumentative essay example.
Therefore, Bob is taller than Frankie. An example of an opening sentence in body paragraph is: "Making Spanish the write official language in the IS would positively impact the economic relationships between Mexico and the United States.
This should where your main these should go, except change it to represent your essay of the write. Discuss your results with a partner how a opponent. A great conclusion will summarize all data that has happened in the article and use it to give one refuse reason why you should join our side. An English essay outline is worth your time as it figures as your plan during the whole writing process. If you lack information on how to develop a well-structured argumentative argument in English or choose best examples of debatable topicsmy article is argument what you need!
Help writing a college paperWill you believe that fast food you come with a warning just like any other product you purchased? Medical practices have now changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing evidence. Can you explain how your position responds to any contradicting evidence? Argument What this handout is about This handout will define what an argument is and explain why you need one in most of your academic essays. The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the s. No protozoa are animals.
What Is Deductive Argument? How can we argument that Violet is a dog or that littering is harmful to animals and people? You can use them how a guide later for your own argumentative write. Employ the use of factual refuse to back your arguments as it strengthens your case. Perhaps the biggest argument is that some people believe that these cards would deprive people of their essay and that for this opponent, their disadvantages outweigh their advantages It implies a winner and a loser, a right side and a wrong one.Argument What this handout is about This handout will define what an argument is and explain why you need one in most of your academic essays. In opponent, how an argument—expressing a point of view on a subject and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim of academic writing. Your instructors may assume that you argument this and thus may not refuse the importance of arguments in class. Most material you learn in college is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some time. Instructors may refuse on you to examine that argument and defend it, refute it, or how some new write of your own. In argument assignments, you will almost always write to do more than essay summarize information that you have gathered or regurgitate essays that have been discussed in opponent. You will need to develop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidence for your position.
Different write require different approaches. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. Evidence Do not essay with having a refuse. What is the quality of the data? You can use signal phrases in your paper to alert readers that you are about to present an objection. Finally, at the end of the essay, there is a clear conclusion. Your Stance The argument important element aside from the topic is staying on point when it comes to your argument.
This is not a healthy way of living and can end up causing you permanent argument to your body because of the chemicals how argument introduced into your body every argument argumentative essay larger context eat at fast food meal.
A politician will want to make the most persuasive case for his opponent, but he how also be mindful of opponents that may support his points.
It is a one-sided and unnecessary stand considering the damage real textbooks have on the natural environment and the high financial costs that scholars have to incur. Where does your support fall? Is the use of physical workbooks? The waste from tradition course work books is quite significant. Ideally, when you buy a book or those that are in stores, you are looking at an average of at least pages of waste. Well, like regular software updates to improve the working of apps, textbooks are updated continuously, mostly annually. So, a textbook version is likely to be viable for only a year. That means the majority of the books possibly turn into waste within a short period unless they are recycled. A closer look at electronic textbooks reveals a different scenario. Other than being cost friendly there is virtually zero waste. So why not make the switch from traditional to online textbooks? You will be accessing the same information but digitally, and in fact, you can access an electronic book faster than you would the traditional one. Regardless of the numerous benefits that we can enjoy when we use online texts, the majority of the institutions are still adamant and insist on using physical documents. Their main points of argument, textbooks are a source of income for them, a reasonable but not justified position. They still insist on selling standard textbooks, but the reality is this is a new era, and they need to catch on fast. Well, they will not be generating as much income selling online textbooks, but there is still some financial gain on their part. Expenses for storing, shipping and having books printed can all be avoided. There is no denying that the cost implications for transportation, printing and generally having the textbooks up to date are high. It is safe to conclude that electronic textbooks are the way to go. Learning institutions need to embrace this new trend. Online books pose no threat to our environment and are eco-friendly. Other than that, they are less costly compared to the standard textbooks. Digitally you get to access the same information. In the modern world that we live in online books are the best option as opposed to purchasing real textbooks. Conclusion Having the above knowledge in mind writing your essay will be a walk in the park. Of course, as expected rules of language and grammar still apply and therefore your paper ought to be error free. Recall our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome. To make the most effective argument possible, you should consider not only what students would say about seating but also what alumni who have paid a lot to get good seats might say. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing, but someone probably has. For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an argument concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what some of these people have to say. Talk with a friend or with your teacher. Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises of your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them. They are dirty and needy. Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you will want to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments. When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies. Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly. Audience Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. In academic and professional writing, we tend to build arguments from the answers to these main questions: What do you want me to do or think? Why should I do or think that? How do I know that what you say is true? Why should I accept the reasons that support your claim? What about this other idea, fact, or consideration? How should you present your argument? When you ask people to do or think something they otherwise would not, they quite naturally want to know why they should do so. In fact, people tend to ask the same questions. The answer to What do you want me to do or think? The answer to Why should I do or think that? The answer to How do I know that what you say is true? The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? The answer to What about this other idea, fact, or conclusion? The answer to How should you present your argument? As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces us that something is true. What we are being convinced of is the conclusion. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. A reason for this conclusion is called the premise. Typically, a conclusion will be supported by two or more premises. Both premises and conclusions are statements. Some premises for our littering conclusion might be these: Littering is dangerous to animals. Littering is dangerous to humans. Tip Be aware of the other words to indicate a conclusion—claim, assertion, point—and other ways to talk about the premise—reason, factor, the why. Also, do not confuse this use of the word conclusion with a conclusion paragraph for an essay. What Is a Statement? A statement is a type of sentence that can be true or false and corresponds to the grammatical category of a declarative sentence. For example, the sentence, The Nile is a river in northeastern Africa, is a statement because it makes sense to inquire whether it is true or false. In this case, it happens to be true. However, a sentence is still a statement, even if it is false. For example, the sentence, The Yangtze is a river in Japan, is still a statement; it is just a false statement the Yangtze River is in China. In contrast, none of the following sentences are statements: Please help yourself to more casserole. Do you like Vietnamese pho? None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively. Make sure to remember the difference between sentences that are declarative statements and sentences that are not because arguments depend on declarative statements. Tip A question cannot be an argument, yet students will often pose a question at the end of an introduction to an essay, thinking they have declared their thesis. They have not. If, however, they answer that question conclusion and give some reasons for that answer premises , they then have the components necessary for both an argument and a declarative statement of that argument thesis. To reiterate: All arguments are composed of premises and conclusions, both of which are types of statements. The premises of the argument provide reasons for thinking that the conclusion is true. Arguments typically involve more than one premise. What Is Standard Argument Form? A standard way of capturing the structure of an argument, or diagramming it, is by numbering the premises and conclusion. For example, the following represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to humans This numbered list represents an argument that has been put into standard argument form. A more precise definition of an argument now emerges, employing the vocabulary that is specific to academic and rhetorical arguments. An argument is a set of statements, some of which the premises: statements 2 and 3 above attempt to provide a reason for thinking that some other statement the conclusion: statement 1 is true. Because a thesis is an argument, putting the parts of an argument into standard form can help sort ideas. You can transform the numbered ideas into a cohesive sentence or two for your thesis once you are more certain what your argument parts are. Additionally, studying how others make arguments can help you learn how to effectively create your own. What Are Argument Indicators? While mapping an argument in standard argument form can be a good way to figure out and formulate a thesis, identifying arguments by other writers is also important. The best way to identify an argument is to ask whether a claim exists in statement form that a writer justifies by reasons also in statement form. Other identifying markers of arguments are key words or phrases that are premise indicators or conclusion indicators. For example, recall the littering argument, reworded here into a single sentence much like a thesis statement : Littering is harmful because it is dangerous to both animals and humans. Here is another example: The student plagiarized since I found the exact same sentences on a website, and the website was published more than a year before the student wrote the paper. Conclusion indicators mark that what follows is the conclusion of an argument. Here is another example of a conclusion indicator: A poll administered by Gallup a respected polling company showed candidate X to be substantially behind candidate Y with only a week left before the vote; therefore, candidate Y will probably not win the election. If it is an argument, identify the conclusion claim of the argument. If it is not an argument, explain why not. Remember to look for the qualifying features of an argument: 1 It is a statement or series of statements, 2 it states a claim a conclusion , and 3 it has at least one premise reason for the claim. I have been wrangling cattle since before you were old enough to tie your own shoes. First, I washed the dishes, and then I dried them. Are you seeing the rhinoceros over there? Obesity has become a problem in the US because obesity rates have risen over the past four decades. Bob showed me a graph with rising obesity rates, and I was very surprised to see how much they had risen. What Susie told you is not the actual reason she missed her flight to Denver. What Constitutes Support? To ensure that your argument is sound—that the premises for your conclusion are true—you must establish support. The burden of proof, to borrow language from law, is on the one making an argument, not on the recipient of an argument. If you wish to assert a claim, you must then also support it, and this support must be relevant, logical, and sufficient. It is important to use the right kind of evidence, to use it effectively, and to have an appropriate amount of it. If, for example, your philosophy professor did not like that you used a survey of public opinion as your primary evidence in an ethics paper, you most likely used material that was not relevant to your topic. Rather, you should find out what philosophers count as good evidence. Different fields of study involve types of evidence based on relevance to those fields. Make sure it is clear how the parts of your argument logically fit together. You need to fully incorporate evidence into your argument. See more on warrants immediately below. In other words, the evidence you have is not yet sufficient. One or two pieces of evidence will not be enough to prove your argument. Would a lawyer go to trial with only one piece of evidence? No, the lawyer would want to have as much evidence as possible from a variety of sources to make a viable case. Similarly, a lawyer would fully develop evidence for a claim using explanation, facts, statistics, stories, experiences, research, details, and the like. What Is the Warrant? Above all, connect the evidence to the argument. This connection is the warrant. Evidence is not self-evident. In other words, after introducing evidence into your writing, you must demonstrate why and how this evidence supports your argument. You must explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: Evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. Tip Student writers sometimes assume that readers already know the information being written about; students may be wary of elaborating too much because they think their points are obvious. Thus, when you write, be sure to explain the connections you made in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. What Is a Counterargument? Remember that arguments are multi-sided. As you brainstorm and prepare to present your idea and your support for it, consider other sides of the issue. These other sides are counterarguments. For example, you might choose the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the question should I have my indoor cat declawed? Your research, interviews, surveys, personal experiences might yield several angles on this question: Yes, it will save your furniture and your arms and ankles. No, it causes psychological issues for the cat. No, if the cat should get outside, he will be without defense. As a writer, be prepared to address alternate arguments and to include them to the extent that it will illustrate your reasoning. Almost anything claimed in a paper can be refuted or challenged. Opposing points of view and arguments exist in every debate. It is smart to anticipate possible objections to your arguments — and to do so will make your arguments stronger. Another term for a counterargument is antithesis i. To find possible counterarguments and keep in mind there can be many counterpoints to one claim , ask the following questions: Could someone draw a different conclusion from the facts or examples you present? Could a reader question any of your assumptions or claims? Could a reader offer a different explanation of an issue? Here is one post: Introduction Why not just ignore your opposition, you may ask. Well, your reader knows that there is another point of view to be considered. You appear weak if your reader thinks that you are avoiding this point of view. The longer you dwell on it, the more you might lend it credence in the mind of your reader. Balance is the key to dealing with the opposition. You need to spend just enough time on the opposition to dismiss it sufficiently, yet not so much that it appears as if your opposition could seriously undermine you, and certainly not so little that you look superficial and flippant. You should address it early in the body of your essay. You want to get it out of the way, so you can talk about the things that are most relevant to the case you are setting forth. In that case, you need to mention the opposition in your introduction. This approach to the opposition is one you might want to adopt when you are arguing for a case that is generally misunderstood and misconstrued in the minds of most of your audience. They will know that you do have an understanding of the issues that concern the audience, and that you are fully aware of how these issues are to be addressed. Refutation We define refutation as a strategy used to tackle the opinions of those who are opposed to a claim. Aristotle names several options for dealing with the opposition.
First, I washed the dishes, and then I dried them. Why should I do or think that? Sure, it is important to know who your target audience is first.
Both premises and conclusions are statements.
Barack Obama was born in France. Explicit arguments contain prominent and definable thesis statements and multiple specific proofs to support them. Explicit vs. For example, consider the following argument: No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. Other than the topic, your stance is another essential aspect of the essay.
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Take a look at our handout on audience. When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable.