How To Organze An Essay

Coursework 30.10.2019

And these judgments can be hard to make. The organization of material will essay somewhat depending on the type of essay—its subject, whether it's a research or personal essay, how long it how be, etc.

Organization makes it easier to understand the thesis. To illustrate, imagine putting together a bike. Having all of the necessary tools, parts, and directions will make the job easier to complete than if the parts are spread across the room and the tools are located all over the house. The same logic applies to writing an essay. When all the parts of an essay are in some sort of order, it is both easier for the writer to put the essay together and for the reader to understand the main ideas presented in the essay. Although organization makes tasks easier to complete, there is not just one way of organizing. For example, there are hundreds of ways to organize a kitchen. The glasses can go in the cupboard to the right of the sink or to the left of it. This is an example of a sentence outline. Another kind of outline is the topic outline. It consists of fragments rather than full sentences. Topic outlines are more open-ended than sentence outlines: they leave much of the working out of the argument for the writing stage. When should I begin putting together a plan? The earlier you begin planning, the better. It is usually a mistake to do all of your research and note-taking before beginning to draw up an outline. Of course, you will have to do some reading and weighing of evidence before you start to plan. But as a potential argument begins to take shape in your mind, you may start to formalize your thoughts in the form of a tentative plan. Within the past years, however, our numbers have increased dramatically, doubling in ever-shortening cycles, so that by , world population stood at 2 billion and a brief 48 years later, at over 4 billion. The consequences of this accelerating population growth can already be seen, and will be even more devastating in the future. If this kind of growth continues, it will result in worldwide starvation, destruction of the environment, and literally, no room to breathe. The opening draws the reader in. The thesis bold states the main idea advanced in the paper. The plan of development is a list of the points that support the thesis. First Supporting Paragraph Topic Sentence Point 1 Specific evidence If population growth continues at its present rate, it will put enormous pressure on world food supplies, making it difficult, if not impossible, to avoid hunger and starvation on a massive scale. Despite all the triumphs of agriculture in the twentieth century, population growth is outstripping the gains in food production. If all the food in the world were equally distributed with each person receiving the same share, we would all be undernourished. The probability of accomplishing such goals is not high, given the vagaries of weather and the difficulty of raising sufficient capital to finance such efforts. First Supporting Paragraph Topic Sentence Point 1 The specific evidence in the rest of the paragraph develops the first main point Second Supporting Paragraph Point 2 Specific evidence In addition to food shortages, rapid population growth will increase the contamination of the environment. Trying a few brainstorming techniques can generate enough material for you to work with. With freewriting, you don't edit or stop yourself. You just write say, for 15 minutes at a time about anything that comes into your head about your topic. Try a mind map. Start by writing down your central topic or idea, and then draw a box around it. Write down other ideas and connect them to see how they relate. With cubing, you consider your chosen topic from 6 different perspectives: 1 Describe it, 2 Compare it, 3 Associate it, 4 Analyze it, 5 Apply it, 6 Argue for and against it. Once you've done your research and brainstorming, you may find that you have a new perspective that informs your argument. Go back and change your thesis accordingly. If your original thesis was very broad, you can also use this chance to narrow it down. Focus on more specific terms, which will help you when you start you organize your outline. Use your thesis statement to determine the trajectory of your outline. For example, if you will compare and contrast two different topics, outline the similarities and the differences. Determine the order in which you will discuss the points. If you're planning to discuss 3 challenges of a particular management strategy, you might capture your reader's attention by discussing them in the order of most problematic to least. Or you might choose to build the intensity of your essay by starting with the smallest problem first. Don't feel like you have to copy the structure of the source you're drawing from or discussing. For example, a very common mistake in beginning essays written about literature is to reiterate the plot point-by-point, building your argument along with it. For example, the topic outline for your essay on golden retrievers would look like this: Thesis: Golden retrievers make great pets. Golden retrievers are extremely well tempered A. Golden retriever attacks are some of the rarest, statistically. Golden retrievers train very easily. Golden retrievers are successful show dogs. You should now think carefully about your approach to the essay question, the main theme or themes that are emerging, what arguments you will use, and the evidence you need to support them.

However, there are certain features which appear consistently in most types of expository writing and which can be followed as general guides for organizing essays. Although the length and number of paragraphs for each section may vary widely from essay to essay, these three sections are relatively consistent in terms of purpose and the kinds of information they include.

The Introduction The introduction has three main purposes: to present the thesis or central idea of the essay to lead in to this idea by describing the major issues the writer is concerned with, giving any necessary background information, how discussing how the thesis was arrived at.

An introductory paragraph may be shaped in a number of different ways, but one common shape is frequently used. Called the "funnel shape" because it goes from wide to narrow, this type of introduction looks like this: The thesis statement is always a statement of the most important point—the idea that the essay seeks to demonstrate or argue.

Organizing an Essay | English Composition I: Rhetorical Methods–Based

It is a commitment that everything to follow will support that point of view. Some writers include in the thesis a preview of the main supporting points their essay will develop; others don't.

Home Grammar How tips Tips For Writing Essays How to organize material for your essay How to organize material for your how By now you should have all the material you need to write your essay, but it is a essay idea to go back to the question to check that you have covered every key aspect of it before you begin to plan your essay and how to incorporate your research into it. As you were carrying out your research, you will have been evaluating the issues and arguments involved. You should now think carefully about your approach to the essay question, the main theme or themes that are emerging, what arguments you will use, and the evidence you need to support them.

Hamlet becomes morally compromised while delaying. Hamlet already began his moral decline before the turning point in the play, the killing of Polonius.

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Hamlet treats women badly. Hamlet criticizes essays in the play for how falsely to get ahead, but in adopting the disguise of madness he, too, is presenting a false face to the world. Though Hamlet becomes more compromised the longer he delays, killing the king would have been a morally questionable act.

How to organze an essay

This is an example of a sentence outline. Another kind of outline is the topic outline. It consists of fragments rather than full sentences. If your argument or analysis requires outside research, make sure you do it before you start organizing. If you have a librarian available, don't be afraid to consult with him or her! Librarians are trained in helping you identify credible sources for how and can get you started in the essay direction. One mistake beginning writers often make is to try and outline their essays before they've done any brainstorming.

Here is part of a circle diagram: What is a reverse outline? When you have completed your first draft, and you think your paper can be better organized, consider using a reverse outline. Reverse outlines are simple to create. Just read through your essay, and every time you make a new point, summarize it in the margin. If the essay is reasonably well-organized, you should have one point in the margin for each paragraph, and your points read out in order should form a coherent argument. You might, however, discover that some of your points are repeated at various places in your essay. Other points may be out of place, and still other key points may not appear at all. Think of all these points as the ingredients of an improved outline which you now must create. Use this new outline to cut and paste the sentences into a revised version of your essay, consolidating points that appear in several parts of your essay while eliminating repetition and creating smooth transitions where necessary. If any paragraph, besides the introduction or conclusion, cannot fit into any section, you may have to ask yourself whether it belongs in the essay. Re-examine each Section Assuming you have more than one paragraph under each section, try to distinguish between them. Perhaps you have two arguments in favor of that can be distinguished from each other by author, logic, ethical principles invoked, etc. Write down the distinctions — they will help you formulate clear topic sentences. Re-examine the Entire Argument Which section do you want to appear first? Which Second? In what order should the paragraphs appear in each section? Look for an order that makes the strongest possible argument. The main section should present your arguments and evidence in a rational order. Organizing before drafting occurs when brainstorming is structured and focused into an organized essay. Thesis The first step in organizing any essay is to create a thesis statement. You may already know what the main argument of your essay is going to be, but a strong thesis helps to organize it. A strong thesis also helps your reader to understand your argument clearly. In developing your thesis, begin by writing down one sentence that expresses the thrust of your essay. The length of the body section will depend on the number of subpoints, examples, or supporting arguments you will use. It will probably be divided into several paragraphs, each with its own main idea, related to the central idea or thesis. And like the essay overall, each supporting paragraph should be unified, developed, and coherent. The Conclusion The conclusion brings the essay to a close. It may restate the thesis or summarize the main points of the argument, but it probably shouldn't merely repeat language that has already been used. The conclusion may reflect on the importance of the subject in a wider context, or it may suggest some action, or even pose a further question. A conclusion may include any final thoughts stemming from the subject of a paper, but it should not raise any new points or arguments. In other words, the thesis is the main idea and each topic statement treats one part of the main idea, as diagramed below: THESIS Topics 1,2,3 Topic 2 Topic 3 Many types of writing follow some version of the basic shape described above. This shape is most obvious in the form of the traditional five-paragraph essay: a model for college writing in which the writer argues his or her viewpoint thesis on a topic and uses three reasons or subtopics to support that position. In the five-paragraph model, as illustrated below, the introductory paragraph mentions the three main points or subtopics, and each body paragraph begins with a topic sentence dealing with one of those main points. Within the past years, however, our numbers have increased dramatically, doubling in ever-shortening cycles, so that by , world population stood at 2 billion and a brief 48 years later, at over 4 billion. While that can sound scary, it's crucial to have a disputable thesis, because otherwise you're probably arguing something that's so obvious it's not worth spending time on. Include the most salient points within your thesis statement. For example, your thesis may be about the similarity between two literary works. Describe the similarities in general terms within your thesis statement. A good thesis will explain why your idea or argument is important. Don't feel like you have to restrict yourself to this limited form. Revise your thesis statement. If in the course of writing your essay you discover important points that were not touched upon in your thesis, edit your thesis. You can't begin to organize your essay until you have some knowledge of your topic. If your argument or analysis requires outside research, make sure you do it before you start organizing. If you have a librarian available, don't be afraid to consult with him or her! Librarians are trained in helping you identify credible sources for research and can get you started in the right direction. One mistake beginning writers often make is to try and outline their essays before they've done any brainstorming. This can leave you frustrated because you don't yet know what you want to say. Trying a few brainstorming techniques can generate enough material for you to work with. With freewriting, you don't edit or stop yourself. You just write say, for 15 minutes at a time about anything that comes into your head about your topic. Try a mind map.

A blank persuasive essay outline in mla format can leave you frustrated because you don't yet know what you how to say. Trying a few brainstorming techniques can generate enough material for you to work with. With freewriting, you don't edit or stop yourself. You just write say, for 15 minutes at a time about anything that comes into your head about your topic. Try a mind map.

Start by writing down your central topic or idea, and then draw a box around it. Write down other ideas and connect them to see how they relate.

With cubing, you consider your chosen topic from 6 different perspectives: 1 Describe it, 2 Compare it, 3 Associate it, 4 Analyze it, 5 Apply it, 6 Argue for and against it. Once you've done your essay and brainstorming, you may find that you have a new perspective that informs your argument.

Go back and change your thesis accordingly. If your essay thesis was very broad, you can also use this chance to narrow it down. There are three common strategies; however, it is important to note that these are broad categories.

Variations of these strategies can be used, and they may be combined with one another. This paper how benefit from reverse outlining. The reverse outline will essay you evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of both your organization and your argument. Read the draft and take notes Read your draft over, and as you do so, make very brief notes in the margin about what each paragraph is trying to accomplish.

Re-examine the Thesis, the Outline, and the Draft Together Look closely at the outline how see how well it supports the argument in your thesis statement.

How to organze an essay

You should be able to see which paragraphs need rewriting, reordering or rejecting. You may not want to write a book or publish your work in an academic journalbut taking how time to write an outline can really help your essays too.

How to organze an essay

Organizing your essay is actually something you should do before you get to the writing stage. If your essay is well-organized from the beginning, it will save you a lot of time.

It is a commitment that everything to follow will support that point of view. Some writers include in the thesis a preview of the main supporting points their essay will develop; others don't. Example of a Thesis with Preview: Until society recognizes the necessity of supporting working parents, and unless the attitudes of employers change, women will always face an uphill battle in successfully combining family and career responsibilities. Example of a Thesis without Preview: Women in the workplace face unfair pressures and attitudes that create difficult, perhaps even insurmountable, challenges. Beginning writers often find that including a preview in their thesis helps them stay on track as they develop each support paragraph. Use whichever version works best for you—as long as your thesis announces exactly where you stand. Whether you preview your supporting points in your thesis or not, be sure to express the supporting points clearly in subsequent paragraphs. The Body The body section expands, develops, and supports the central idea or thesis set forth in the introduction. The body of the essay is the writer's discussion of the subject, issues, and points presented in the introduction, developed through examples, explanations, details, and supporting arguments. The body should be unified: focused on expanding one central idea—the thesis of the essay. It should be developed: using examples, quotes, details to provide a clear and complete treatment of the subject. And it should be coherent: follow an ordered line of thinking from paragraph to paragraph and from sentence to sentence. The length of the body section will depend on the number of subpoints, examples, or supporting arguments you will use. It will probably be divided into several paragraphs, each with its own main idea, related to the central idea or thesis. And like the essay overall, each supporting paragraph should be unified, developed, and coherent. The Conclusion The conclusion brings the essay to a close. It may restate the thesis or summarize the main points of the argument, but it probably shouldn't merely repeat language that has already been used. The conclusion may reflect on the importance of the subject in a wider context, or it may suggest some action, or even pose a further question. A conclusion may include any final thoughts stemming from the subject of a paper, but it should not raise any new points or arguments. In other words, the thesis is the main idea and each topic statement treats one part of the main idea, as diagramed below: THESIS Topics 1,2,3 Topic 2 Topic 3 Many types of writing follow some version of the basic shape described above. This shape is most obvious in the form of the traditional five-paragraph essay: a model for college writing in which the writer argues his or her viewpoint thesis on a topic and uses three reasons or subtopics to support that position. In the five-paragraph model, as illustrated below, the introductory paragraph mentions the three main points or subtopics, and each body paragraph begins with a topic sentence dealing with one of those main points. When you have completed your first draft, and you think your paper can be better organized, consider using a reverse outline. Reverse outlines are simple to create. Just read through your essay, and every time you make a new point, summarize it in the margin. If the essay is reasonably well-organized, you should have one point in the margin for each paragraph, and your points read out in order should form a coherent argument. You might, however, discover that some of your points are repeated at various places in your essay. Other points may be out of place, and still other key points may not appear at all. Think of all these points as the ingredients of an improved outline which you now must create. Use this new outline to cut and paste the sentences into a revised version of your essay, consolidating points that appear in several parts of your essay while eliminating repetition and creating smooth transitions where necessary. You can improve even the most carefully planned essay by creating a reverse outline after completing your first draft. The process of revision should be as much about organization as it is about style. How much of my time should I put into planning? It is self-evident that a well-planned paper is going to be better organized than a paper that was not planned out. Thinking carefully about how you are going to argue your paper and preparing an outline can only add to the quality of your final product. Nevertheless, some people find it more helpful than others to plan. Those who are good at coming up with ideas but find writing difficult often benefit from planning. By contrast, those who have trouble generating ideas but find writing easy may benefit from starting to write early. Putting pen to paper or typing away at the keyboard may be just what is needed to get the ideas to flow. You have to find out for yourself what works best for you, though it is fair to say that at least some planning is always a good idea. Think about whether your current practices are serving you well. Poor organization in an essay will make it difficult for the reader to follow your arguments, and if the reader happens to be your professor or your TA, this can make you lose marks. There are several different ways you can organize your information. Depending on what stage you are at in your planning and research process, sometimes you can make multiple charts. This method is good for students who want to see all of their ideas at once to see how they fit together. However, if you have problems drawing things out, it may be difficult for you to fit everything together on one page. All you need is a little bit of water and you can write and re-write multiple times. Or you could use a big white board as well.

You may already know what the main argument of your essay is going to be, but a strong thesis helps to organize it. A strong thesis also helps your reader to understand your argument clearly.

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For example, there are hundreds of ways to organize a kitchen. The glasses can go in the cupboard to the right of the sink or to the left of it. The silverware can be placed in any number of drawers. Pots and pans can be hung on hooks over the island in the center of the kitchen or hidden in cupboard space beneath the counter. It does not matter as much where these items are placed, but that they are organized in a logical manner. Essays, like kitchens, can also be organized in different ways. There are three common strategies; however, it is important to note that these are broad categories. Variations of these strategies can be used, and they may be combined with one another. This paper may benefit from reverse outlining. Once you have all of your points written down, you re-arrange your cards in an order that flows the best. This creates the outline for your paper. The good thing about this method is that once your cards are re-ordered, you have your paper already outlined and organized. At the same time, you may have way more information than you can use and will need to get rid of some of your research. Some techniques for integrating note-taking and planning Though convenient, the common method of jotting down your notes consecutively on paper is far from ideal. The problem is that your points remain fixed on paper. Here are three alternatives that provide greater flexibility: method 1: index cards When you are researching, write down every idea, fact, quotation, or paraphrase on a separate index card. A useful alternative involves using both white and coloured cards. When you come up with a point that you think may be one of the main points in your outline, write it at the top of a coloured card. Put each supporting note on a separate white card, using as much of the card as necessary. When you feel ready, arrange the coloured cards into a workable plan. Some of the points may not fit in. If so, either modify the plan or leave these points out. You may need to fill gaps by creating new cards. You can shuffle your supporting material into the plan by placing each of the white cards behind the point it helps support. Golden retrievers are extremely well tempered A. Golden retriever attacks are some of the rarest, statistically. Golden retrievers train very easily. Golden retrievers are successful show dogs. Golden retrievers are intelligent dogs. Statistically, golden retrievers are some of the most common purebred dogs in America. Female golden retrievers have larger litters than most purebreds. The air over many large cities has become a grayish haze because of automobile exhaust and industrial pollutants; and as population grows, so will the number of automobiles and factories. And pollution of our water and land grows apace. Monstrous oil tankers now spill millions of gallons of oil into the oceans each year, factories and municipalities pour chemical and human waste into rivers, lakes, and streams. Destruction of the land will increase as it becomes covered with asphalt for more roads and highways, as it becomes despoiled by giant strip-mining machines in search of more coal, and as its natural vegetation is removed to make room for more houses and refuse dumping sites. The solution to hunger and famine obviously depends on the intelligent use of the land. If we do not cherish and protect it, it will not support our current population, to say nothing of billions more. The topic sentence underlined advances the second supporting point for the thesis. The specific evidence in the rest of the paragraph develops the second main point. Third Supporting Paragraph Point 3 Specific evidence People also have a need for space, for room to live and play. Though we might be able to feed, clothe, and house more billions, we cannot create more space for them; and limitations of space will create serious psychological problems for humanity. The more people are jammed together, the more hostile and irrational they become. Such irrationality is evidenced in the higher crime rates, the more frequently disrupted public services, and the general impersonality and lack of community in large cities. And people need recreational space too, especially if they live and work in cramped quarters.

In developing your thesis, begin by writing down one sentence that expresses the thrust of your essay. Supporting Paragraphs The next step in organizing my essay is creating body paragraphs to support your thesis.

After developing your thesis, you might be tempted to start writing the rest of your essay immediately. These headings will how you plan out the paragraphs in the main body of the essay.

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